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    Emerging new paradigms for ABCG transporters.


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    Every cell is separated from its external environment by a lipid membrane. Survival depends on the regulated and selective transport of nutrients, waste products and regulatory molecules across these membranes, a process that is often mediated by integral membrane proteins. The largest and most diverse of these membrane transport systems is the ATP binding cassette (ABC) family of membrane transport proteins. The ABC family is a large evolutionary conserved family of transmembrane proteins (>250 members) present in all phyla, from bacteria to Homo sapiens, which require energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis to transport substrates against concentration gradients. In prokaryotes the majority of ABC transporters are involved in the transport of nutrients and other macromolecules into the cell. In eukaryotes, with the exception of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR/ABCC7), ABC transporters mobilize substrates from the cytoplasm out of the cell or into specific intracellular organelles. This review focuses on the members of the ABCG subfamily of transporters, which are conserved through evolution in multiple taxa. As discussed below, these proteins participate in multiple cellular homeostatic processes, and functional mutations in some of them have clinical relevance in humans.
    機譯:每個細胞都通過脂質膜與其外部環境隔開。生存取決于營養,廢物和調節分子在這些膜上的調節和選擇性轉運,這一過程通常由完整的膜蛋白介導。這些膜轉運系統中最大和最多樣化的是膜轉運蛋白的ATP結合盒(ABC)家族。 ABC家族是從細菌到智人的所有門中都存在的跨膜蛋白(> 250個成員)的大型進化保守家族,它們需要ATP水解形式的能量才能針對濃度梯度運輸底物。在原核生物中,大多數ABC轉運蛋白都參與營養物質和其他大分子向細胞內的轉運。在真核生物中,除囊性纖維化跨膜電導調節劑(CFTR / ABCC7)外,ABC轉運蛋白將底物從細胞質中轉移到細胞外或進入特定的細胞內細胞器。這篇綜述著重于轉運蛋白的ABCG亞家族的成員,其通過在多個分類單元中的進化而得以保存。如下所述,這些蛋白質參與多個細胞體內平衡過程,其中一些中的功能突變在人類中具有臨床意義。



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