• 首頁> 外文學位 >Domestic arts: Amelia Pelaez and the Cuban vanguard, 1935--1945.

    Domestic arts: Amelia Pelaez and the Cuban vanguard, 1935--1945.

    機譯:家庭藝術:阿米莉亞·佩雷斯(Amelia Pelaez)和古巴先鋒隊(1935--1945)。

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    Many scholars today consider Amelia Pelaez de Casal's (1896--1968) highly ornamental, domestic colonial interiors of the early forties to be the first Cuban paintings that are both highly individualized in style yet also nationally significant for having created a distinctly Cuban idiom. In these works, Pelaez departed from earlier vanguard strategies for the creation of a national art, strategies that had involved the depiction of Afro-Cuban and guajiro (peasant) subjects and the wholesale adoption of modern European styles. While the changes brought by Pelaez---a highly ornamental line and richly saturated color, both derived from colonial architecture---have been interpreted by scholars as innovations unique to the 1940s, my research demonstrates that these innovations must be understood as stemming from the artistic experiments she began in the wake of her return to Cuba from Paris in 1934.;I investigate the significance of the fact that her first major monographic show in Cuba, in 1935, was held at the Lyceum, a women's club that provided a crucial venue for the vanguard. My research on the reception of that exhibition and others reveals that critics understood her work to be involved with a surprising matrix of concerns, including the nature of modern femininity, as well as vanguard practices involving the overt expression of the artist's subjectivity and the effort to find a new basis for Cuban identity. I argue that the domestic colonial interiors Pelaez developed in the years after her 1935 Lyceum exhibition demonstrate that her aesthetic evolved in response to these debates.;In 1935--1936, Pelaez developed a distinct aesthetic, one ostensibly based on the domestic colonial interior and the place of the female subject within it. During these same years, interest in the colonial past developed widely and permeated other sectors, including new architectural histories, building restoration projects, and literary themes, and I explore her work in relation to this "Colonial Renaissance." I also track how Pelaez initiated a modern Cuban aesthetic and found her personal style by experimenting with the incised textures, geometric patterns and odd perspectives of tablecloths and fruit dishes, and how she went on to develop these techniques by integrating domestic objects with architectural decorations. I argue these domestic objects and architectural features invoke the vanguard's introspective notion of artistic practice in part because they reference nineteenth-century notions of creole domesticity wherein creole proto-nationalism depended on chaste women's isolation at home; yet in place of a female sitter, Pelaez installs still-lifes that draw the viewer's attention to modernist modes of artistic creation, and, sometimes, to female sexuality.;Consequently I examine not only how Pelaez engaged with the vanguard's ideals as articulated in the Lyceum debates, but, more importantly, how she explored tensions within these ideals, particularly in regard to women's possible contributions to national culture. Furthermore, in my study of Pelaez's relationship to critical debates on the nature of Baroque painting, I build on Robert Altmann's 1945 analysis to argue that Pelaez uses Baroque ornamentation to engage and merge multiple histories and assorted styles---past and present---to arrive at a contemporary Cuban idiom.;Throughout the dissertation I evaluate the relationship of Pelaez's themes and styles to those of her vanguard peers, considering in particular images of courtship, maternities, and family portraits (E. Abela, A. Fernandez, D. Ravenet, C. Enriquez); of windows compared to paintings (V. Manuel, A. Gattorno); and of domestic colonial interiors (M. Carreno, R. Portocarrero, C. Bermudez); these juxtapositions all point to the continuity over two decades of Pelaez's relentless pursuit, and display, of style. I also compare her work to contemporary Afrocuban artists (A. Pena, T. Ramos Blanco), which shows that, contrary to scholars' "white creole" interpretations of Pelaez's interiors, multiple readings of her work are possible with respect to race. Finally, by examining how Pelaez engaged and contested notions of vanguard art and femininity in the context of contemporary socio-political tumult, blind-spots within the vanguard's ideals are revealed, particularly in regard to questions of race and class.;In 1943, when Pelaez had a retrospective exhibition at the Hispano-Cuban Cultural Institute, critics related her work to the vanguard notion that the domestic interior could be a source for establishing an authentic national identity, and to a closely related notion that the artist should draw upon his or her own subjectivity and introspection in the hopes of producing an "interior" vision that would also be genuine. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
    機譯:今天,許多學者認為阿梅利亞·佩萊茲·德·卡薩爾(Amelia Pelaez de Casal,1896--1968年)四十年代初期具有高度裝飾性的國內殖民時期內飾是第一批既具有高度個性化風格又因創造出獨特的古巴習語而在全國范圍內具有重要意義的古巴繪畫。在這些作品中,佩萊茲(Pelaez)脫離了早期創建民族藝術的先鋒策略,這些策略涉及非洲裔古巴人和瓜吉羅(農民)主題的描繪以及現代歐洲風格的大量采用。盡管佩萊茲(Pelaez)帶來的變化-一種高度裝飾性線條和豐富的飽和色彩,都源于殖民時期的建筑-已被學者解釋為1940年代獨有的創新,但我的研究表明,必須將這些創新理解為源于她在1934年從巴黎返回古巴后開始的藝術實驗;我調查了1935年在古巴舉行的第一場大型專題展覽在一個女子俱樂部Lyceum舉辦的事實的重要性。先鋒隊的重要場地。我對那場展覽及其他展覽的接待情況的研究表明,評論家們理解她的作品涉及令人驚訝的關注點,包括現代女性氣質的本質,以及涉及藝術家主觀性的公開表達和尋找古巴身份的新依據。我認為,佩萊茲(Pelaez)在1935年舉辦的Lyceum展覽之后的幾年中發展起來的國內殖民地室內環境表明,她的審美觀是根據這些辯論而演變的。; 1935--1936年,佩萊茲(Pelaez)發展了一種獨特的審美觀,表面上是基于居家殖民地室內環境。女性主題在其中的位置。在同一年中,對殖民地過去的興趣得到了廣泛發展,并滲透到其他領域,包括新的建筑歷史,建筑修復項目和文學主題,我探索了她與這種“殖民地文藝復興”有關的作品。我還跟蹤了佩萊茲如何通過研究切開的質地,幾何圖案以及桌布和水果盤的奇異視角來發揚現代古巴美學并找到她的個人風格,以及她如何通過將家居物品與建筑裝飾相結合來發展這些技術。我認為這些家庭物品和建筑特征激發了先鋒隊對藝術實踐的內省性概念,部分原因是它們引用了19世紀克里奧爾人的家庭觀念,其中克里奧爾人的原民族主義取決于貞潔的女性在家里的孤立。佩萊茲(Pelaez)代替了女性保姆,設置了靜物畫,吸引觀眾注意現代主義的藝術創作模式,有時甚至關注女性性行為。因此,我不僅研究了佩萊茲(Pelaez)如何與先鋒派理想結合在一起。法庭討論,但更重要的是,她如何探索這些理想中的緊張關系,特別是在婦女對民族文化的可能貢獻方面。此外,在我對佩萊茲與巴洛克繪畫性質的批判性辯論的關系的研究中,我以羅伯特·阿爾特曼(Robert Altmann)1945年的分析為基礎,認為佩萊茲使用巴洛克式的裝飾物來融合并融合過去和現在的多種歷史和各種風格-在整個論文中,我評估了佩萊茲的主題和風格與她的先鋒同齡人之間的關系,特別考慮了求愛,生育和全家福的形象(E. Abela,A。Fernandez,D Ravenet,C. Enriquez);與繪畫相比的窗戶數量(V. Manuel,A。Gattorno);以及國內殖民地內部裝飾(M. Carreno,R。Portocarrero,C。Bermudez);這些并列都表明佩萊茲對風格的不懈追求和展示在過去的二十年中是連續的。我還將她的作品與當代非洲裔古巴藝術家(A. Pena,T。Ramos Blanco)進行了比較,這表明,與學者對佩萊茲內飾的“白克里奧爾語”解釋相反,她的作品在種族方面可能得到多種解讀。最后,通過考察佩萊茲如何在當代社會政治動蕩的背景下參與和質疑先鋒派藝術和女性氣質的概念,揭示了先鋒派理想中的盲點,特別是在種族和階級問題方面; 1943年,佩雷斯(Pelaez)在西班牙-古巴文化學院(Hispano-Cuban Cultural Institute)進行了回顧展,批評家們將她的作品與先鋒派的觀念聯系在一起,后者認為家庭內部空間可以成為建立真實民族身份的來源,并且與藝術家應該利用他或他的作品緊密相關。她自己的主觀性和內省性,希望能產生一種真實的“內部”視覺。 (摘要由UMI縮短。)


    • 作者

      Elliott, Ingrid Williams.;

    • 作者單位

      The University of Chicago.;

    • 授予單位 The University of Chicago.;
    • 學科 History Latin American.;Art History.;Latin American Studies.
    • 學位 Ph.D.
    • 年度 2010
    • 頁碼 561 p.
    • 總頁數 561
    • 原文格式 PDF
    • 正文語種 eng
    • 中圖分類 B9;
    • 關鍵詞

    • 入庫時間 2022-08-17 11:36:56


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